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Saturday, August 8, 2020 | History

3 edition of Radiation and eddy flux experiment, 1991 (REFLEX 1) found in the catalog.

Radiation and eddy flux experiment, 1991 (REFLEX 1)

JoМ€rg Hartmann

Radiation and eddy flux experiment, 1991 (REFLEX 1)

by JoМ€rg Hartmann

  • 232 Want to read
  • 31 Currently reading

Published by Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar-und Meeresforschung, Vertrieb durch Buchh. K. Kamloth in Bremerhaven, Bremen .
Written in

    Places:
  • Arctic regions
    • Subjects:
    • Atmospheric turbulence -- Arctic regions -- Measurement.,
    • Atmospheric radiation -- Arctic regions -- Measurement.,
    • Sea ice -- Arctic regions -- Measurement.,
    • Boundary layer (Meteorology) -- Arctic regions -- Measurement.,
    • Aeronautics in meteorology.

    • Edition Notes

      Includes bibliographical references (p. 72).

      StatementJörg Hartmann, Christoph Kottmeier, und Christian Wamser.
      SeriesBer. Polarforsch.,, 105, Berichte zur Polarforschung ;, Nr. 105.
      ContributionsKottmeier, Christoph., Wamser, Christian.
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsQC880.4.T8 H37 1992
      The Physical Object
      Paginationiii, 72 p. :
      Number of Pages72
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL1508040M
      LC Control Number93189436

      The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to store transuranic radioactive waste years. The waste is from the research and production of United States nuclear weapons. The project is estimated to cost $19 billion in total. Solar radiation (insolation or shortwave radiation)from the sun (– μm) that reaches the Earth’s surface (about 50 % of that emitted) is a major source of energy for heating our the mean distance of the Earth from the sun (

      Since no heat flux was measured in the water tank report a rim current in the field experiments of winter /92 in the Gulf of Lions with a width of less than 20 km in a convective regime of 50– C.-H. Moeng, and U. Schumann, Large-eddy simulation of the convective boundary layer:A comparison of four computer codes. Despite the key role of the surface energy budget in the global climate system, such investigations are rare in Antarctica. In this study, the surface energy budget measurements from the largest ice-free area on northern James Ross Island, in Antarctica, were obtained. The components of net radiation were measured by a net radiometer, while sensible heat flux was measured by a sonic anemometer.

      However, the question as to which of the two approaches produces a better measure of eddy flux could only be resolved conclusively via a direct experiment over the area with known flux magnitudes. Surface energy and fluxes have been measured over a farmland in Haenam, Korea since July Eddy covariance technique, which is the only direct flux measurement method, was employed to.


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Radiation and eddy flux experiment, 1991 (REFLEX 1) by JoМ€rg Hartmann Download PDF EPUB FB2

The eddy covariance (also known as eddy correlation and eddy flux) technique is a key atmospheric measurement technique to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary method analyzes high-frequency wind and scalar atmospheric data series, gas, energy, and momentum, which yields values of fluxes of these properties.

Radiation and Eddy Flux experiment (REFLEX II). [Christoph Kottmeier;] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Book: All Authors / Contributors: Christoph Kottmeier. Find more information about: OCLC Number: Notes. Get this from a library.

Radiation and eddy flux experiment (REFLEX III). [Jörg Hartmann;]. [Rediation] Radiation and Eddy Flux Experiment (REFLEX I) By Jon Nakia Hartmann, C.

Kottmeier and C. Wamser. Publisher: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. Year: OAI identifier: oai: Provided by: Electronic Publication Information Center. Download PDF. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): (external link) http://hdl Author: Jörg Hartmann, C.

Kottmeier and C. Wamser. The Radiation und Eddy Flux Experiment, REF was conducted to the n0rt.h and west of Svalbard (15OE 78'1) on t,he basis of measurements with the two air- craft. Polar "2nd Polar 4 of the Alfred Wegener Institute. REFLEX I1 was a winter experiment with scient,ific objectives similar to those of the REFLEX I experiment.

The ratio of eddy-covariance CO 2 flux to EBBR CO 2 flux and the ratio of eddy-covariance CO 2 flux to the scaled-leaf CO 2 flux are plotted against the closure fraction (D) in Fig. Each data value in Fig. 8 corresponds to a 30 min average when the wind was from a direction that provided adequate fetch (–).

Low energy balance closure (EBC) at a particular eddy-covariance flux site has increased the uncertainties of carbon, water, and energy measurements and has thus hampered the urgent research of scaling up and modeling analyses through site combinations in regional or global flux networks.

A series of manipulative experiments were conducted in this study to explore the role of net radiation (Rn. Eddy flux measurements. Since the experiments conducted at the Bray site have been part of the EUROFLUX programme (Aubinet et al., ).

Continuous measurements of CO 2, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes have been performed at canopy scale from July to Juneusing a 25 m high instrumented tower. No measurements were.

Variations in the earth–sun distance, however, lead to variations in extraterrestrial radiation flux in the range of ±%. The dependence of extraterrestrial radiation on the time of year is shown in Fig. A simple equation with adequate accuracy for most engineering calculations is given in Eq.

(a). The Penman–Monteith equation illustrates relationships among net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and surface temperature. Soil experiments that alter surface albedo, surface conductance to evapotranspiration, and thermal conductivity illustrate the importance of these properties in regulating surface temperature and energy.

Radiation and Eddy Flux Experiment (REFLEX III) By Jon Nakia Hartmann, A. Bochert and Daniela Freese. Get PDF (6 MB) Publisher: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research.

Year: OAI identifier: oai: Provided. The aerodynamic drag of Arctic sea ice is calculated using surface data, measured by an airborne laser altimeter and a digital camera in the marginal ice zone of Fram Strait. The influence of the surface morphology on the momentum transfer under neutral thermal stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer is derived with the aid of model concepts, based on the partitioning of the surface.

PV (contours, PVU) and the eddy flux of PV (shading, PVU m s −1) averaged over days – for (a) the unforced experiment, (b) the forced experiment, and (c) the response (i.e., the difference).

The thin horizontal lines show and K isentropes. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is light of wavelengths nm and is the portion of the light spectrum utilised by plants for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) is defined as the photon flux density of PAR.

Modern instruments measure light as the rate at which moles ( × 10 23 quanta) of PAR land on a unit area (μmol quanta m −2 s −1); however, it. The third, RAD-LHF, has both longwave radiation and a prescribed surface latent heat flux of W m −2.

In these experiments, the longwave radiation and/or the latent heat flux are introduced after 1 h of simulated time, when the CTEI-induced convection is already established.

The surface sensible heat flux was set to zero in all of the runs. In electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves from an antenna, shown here) the term "radiation" applies only to the parts of the electromagnetic field that radiate into infinite space and decrease in intensity by an inverse-square law of power, so that the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the same, no matter how far away from the antenna the.

The central role of eddy–eddy interactions in planetary macroturbulence does not contradict weakly nonlinear descriptions and theories—for example, of the thermal structure (Randel and Held ; Held ; Schneider and Walker)—in the sense that nonlinear eddy–eddy interactions only are essential for eddy absorption.

have shown the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes measured by eddy covariance to be less than the difference between net radiation and soil heat fluxes.

This under-measurement of sensible and latent heat fluxes by eddy-covariance instruments has occurred in numerous field experiments and among many different manufacturers of instruments.

ORNL DAAC: This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North America. The data were used by North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-Level Synthesis as model driver data and for assessing how well 24 Terrestrial Biosphere Models simulated carbon processes across vegetation types and.

Eddy diffusivity can be calculated from changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of a con- servative tracer, such as heat, by the flux gradient method (Jassby and Powell ). According to Fick’s first law, the flux of heat is proportional to the temperature gradient and eddy diffusivity.

In the NF experiment, low-level eddy activity measured by poleward eddy heat flux is also weakened markedly at midlatitudes with its peak magnitude reduced by as much as ∼70%.

The weakening of eddy activity and scattering in the latitudes of the individual eddy centers are manifested in the snapshot of eddies at a near-surface level (Fig. 3b).Cosmic rays are high-energy protons and atomic nuclei which move through space at nearly the speed of originate from the sun, from outside of the solar system, and from distant galaxies.

They were discovered by Victor Hess in in balloon experiments. Direct measurement of cosmic rays, especially at lower energies, has become possible since the launch of the first satellites in.